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The financial services industry is heavily regulated all around the world. So, it should come as no surprise that fintech products, services and solutions would invariably be caught under similar regulations and laws. Most countries do not have one overarching piece of legislation — a fintech law that covers all things fintech.

The law firm has been working with a number of clients in different parts of the fintech field. It has start-up clients who need ad hoc regulatory advice and help with handling applications for licences. Wong has also advised clients — particularly the more established companies such as banks and insurers — that are trying to understand the dynamics of partnering with or investing in start-ups.

When you go in, what are some of the key areas? Next, what are your rights as a financial investor? For example, equity dilution. At the recent MDeC Fintech Conference, lawyer Lim Jo Yan advised fintech start-ups that it is important to know who the regulators are and which ones are relevant.

There is Bank Negara, which regulates the financial services industry, and the Securities Commission Malaysia, which regulates securities and things such as equity crowdfunding and peer-to-peer lending. The Ministry of Housing and Local Government regulates money-lending while the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission regulates advertising content. There is also the Personal Data Protection Commission, which looks at all things related to personal data. Are Price Controls Necessarily Bad?

The Case of Rice in Vietnam. Journal of Development Economics, 73 1 , Guenette, J. Shearing, N. An Anatomy of Supply Shortages. Capital Economics. We discharge this mandate by ensuring that the financial system is resilient and can withstand shocks throughout economic cycles.

This involves promoting strong and well-managed financial institutions. It also includes fostering safe and reliable clearing and settlement systems, and ensuring orderly financial markets. Ultimately, a sound and stable financial system facilitates the continuous delivery of effective services to financial consumers.

Financial Stability Priorities in was another challenging year for the economy and financial sector. The Bank had to be agile and responsive in addressing risks from the COVID pandemic to safeguard financial stability. During the year, the government reintroduced two Movement Control Orders MCOs to ease the pressure on the healthcare system and contain the resurgence of the pandemic.

Malaysia also suffered one of the worst floods in recent history which tragically caused loss of human lives, damaged properties, and impacted livelihoods. Our regulatory and supervisory priorities therefore were anchored to deliver three key outcomes. First, to help ease the financial strain of individuals and businesses affected by the pandemic and flood.

Second, to ensure the financial system is well-positioned to support a quick and sustainable recovery of the economy. Third, to pave the way for long-term structural reforms to address current and emerging risks in the financial sector. Unlike the automatic moratorium on all individual and SME loans implemented during the nationwide lockdown in the first half of , customers who needed assistance could apply for it. This reflected the move towards more targeted assistance as the economy gradually re-opened, while ensuring that customers facing a slower or uneven recovery of their financial circumstances would continue to receive help.

In the first half of , the standardised assistance packages were targeted at B40 individuals, including microenterprises, who had become unemployed or had experienced a significant reduction in income. In addition, the standardised assistance packages were also extended to SMEs who were unable to operate due to the movement restrictions. This is intended to help customers manage their overall financing costs. URUS aims to help the most vulnerable B50 bank customers transition from existing repayment assistance to more holistic financial and debt management support.

Financial management plans developed for customers under URUS take into account all their debt obligations In response to the floods in December, the banks also extended help to their flood-affected customers. In addition, customers can choose other advisory and assistance packages by banks and AKPK to manage their financial obligations. June to December 2. What is URUS? This is complemented by financial education and advisory services to help build financial resilience.

What help is given under URUS? What other programmes does AKPK offer? Life insurers also offered a six month interest-free repayment period for policyholders to resume their premium payments. Other support measures included the restructuring of insurance policies and takaful certificates, waiving of fees and charges, and faster claims processes.

The CTF was fully utilised by August and benefited about 59, recipients. This included reimbursement for key expenses related to COVID, such as post-vaccination complications and treatment for side effects at private hospitals.

The industry also provided proactive support to flood-affected customers, including those who did not have flood or special perils cover for their motor vehicles. Claims processes were made faster and simpler, including advance payments and waiver of certain documents to provide swift assistance. Some ITOs also provided free towing services for stranded vehicles.

The recent flood reinforced the importance of protection against unexpected financial losses. Moving forward, the Bank will work with the industry and Government to explore public-private partnerships in efforts to expand protection coverage against climate-related and business interruption risks, particularly for small businesses.

Enhanced communication strategies to support relief measures During the year, we intensified efforts to increase public awareness of the various assistance programmes available to affected customers. We also ensured communications are accurate, consistent, and widely and swiftly disseminated.

This helps to ensure consumers are aware of and reach out for the available assistance, if needed. We also engaged directly with various stakeholders in our communication strategy. We met government agencies, business chambers, consumer associations and other relevant stakeholders. Feedback was also obtained through the Repayment Assistance Survey and other channels to ensure the assistance provided was efficiently executed. These measures allowed us to monitor the efficacy of the relief measures.

In addition, it provided immediate inputs for timely responses by the Bank. FEN formulated the National Strategy for Financial Literacy , a five-year roadmap to elevate the financial literacy of Malaysians and to empower Malaysians to: a save, manage and protect their finances; b plan and ensure a sustainable future; and c protect themselves from fraud and financial scams. In doing so, the Bank played four different roles to ensure that information was disseminated in a timely manner, widely available, and consistent.

The Bank as a referral point for information In , engagement with the public remained high, with around Via BNMLINK, the Bank continued to be the referral point for financial consumers, providing information on relief measures e. The Bank as a collaborator The Bank actively collaborated with both public and private sectors, including ministries, agencies, associations, digital and gig platforms to amplify the effectiveness of our outreach efforts. The Bank, as a member of FEN, actively collaborated with various parties and reached out to more than 5,, consumers.

Noting this, our regulatory focus continued to prioritise expanding the operational capacity of financial institutions to support their customers, addressing current and emerging risks including climate-related risks , and strengthening operational resilience. The key policy issuances are summarised in Diagram 4.

Climate Change and Principle-Based Taxonomy Guidance Document Facilitates financial institutions in assessing and classifying economic activities that contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Management of Participating Life Business ED Strengthens requirements for the effective management of participating life businesses. This includes enhancements to the uses and resolution of estate i. Promoting Operational Resilience Ensuring financial institutions are able to respond and continue to deliver critical services during periods of operational disruptions.

Enhancing Recovery Planning Enhancing ability of financial institutions to recover and restore their long-term viability under stress conditions. Recovery Planning Policy Document PD Outlines expectations on the development and maintenance of recovery plans for financial institutions. Code of Conduct for Malaysia Wholesale Financial Markets PD Stipulates principles and standards to be observed by wholesale financial market participants.

Promoting Financial Stability Supervisory priorities and approach Our approach to supervision is risk-based and forward looking. We conduct on-site examinations and off-site analysis of information gathered from financial institutions and through market surveillance. As the COVID pandemic constrained our ability to conduct on-site examinations, we placed greater reliance on off-site assessments. These engagements helped us to address new areas of emerging risks in a timely manner.

In addition, we strengthened the rigour of our stress tests to enable us to identify potential vulnerabilities in the banking system very early on. During the year, we ran a multi-year supervisory stress test. This allows us to compare with the results of the stress tests done by banks.

Together, the outcomes of the stress tests supported informed assessments on the resilience of each bank. Notwithstanding current low impairments, we continued our supervisory focus on credit risk. We continued to closely monitor and update our outlook for credit risk developments under a range of economic scenarios. For the ITO sector, our supervisory assessments continued to focus on the impact of higher claims and weaker investment performance amid an environment of lower new business growth and increased competition.

MFRS 17, the new accounting standard for insurance contracts will come into effect from 1 January The new standard entails a holistic overhaul of the way ITOs measure and recognise their income in the financial statements.

As such, ITOs have intensified their preparations, including making changes to their internal systems and processes, to comply with MFRS We continued to closely monitor their implementation plans to ensure that ITOs will be ready to implement the new standards in A few ITOs are also planning to commence parallel reporting by the third quarter of In the case of Islamic banks, attention was also given to ensuring compliance with Shariah requirements in implementing payment assistance.

Operational risk and cyber resilience Prolonged remote working and greater digitalisation bring new challenges to financial institutions in managing operational resilience. Financial institutions have updated their business continuity plans and disaster recovery plans to account for major operational disruptions.

Measures have also been put in place to ensure continuity of critical services during periods of disruption. A key measure has been the implementation of split operations, particularly for critical business functions such as treasury operations. Frequent engagements and coordination of contingency plans with critical third party service providers TPSPs have also become a more prominent feature of business continuity plans. Financial institutions have also largely retained infrastructure developed for remote working — either as part of their permanent post-pandemic working environment or as a contingency arrangement.

The SAC also issued a prohibition on compounding of profits for facilities under payment assistance. FinTIP also disseminates real-time cyber alerts to the industry. Financial institutions will also be able to test their internal preparedness and improve their knowledge on cyber incidents. This is in light of greater adoption of digital platforms and cloud computing. Most financial institutions maintained sound risk management practices, although in some institutions, further enhancements are needed to further strengthen their preparedness against extreme adverse events.

The Bank will continue to work with financial institutions, and collaborate with other regulators and relevant Government agencies such as the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission to strengthen the management of risks in this area. This was conducted as part of the overall operational resilience assessment. Through this platform, we shared our policy and supervisory responses to address risks from the COVID pandemic.

We also deliberated the effectiveness of these responses and considerations in determining the unwinding of these measures. As different jurisdictions have their own recovery paths, such sharing among regulators provided useful insights for us in calibrating our policy responses.

In addition, supervisory cooperation continued to focus on ensuring effective oversight of our financial institutions with significant overseas operations, and local subsidiaries of large international financial groups. We participated in supervisory colleges for 10 insurance groups and six banks in These continue to be important platforms for regulators to exchange views and supervisory assessments of Promoting Financial Stability the financial institutions especially under the current uncertain environment.

We also continued to actively participate in international prudential and climate-related committees 3. The discussions at these forums were insightful in informing our decisions in key areas such as COVID risks and recovery measures, climate change and digitalisation. On the domestic front, the Bank and Securities Commission Malaysia led further progress in improving the climate resilience of our financial sector through the Joint Committee on Climate Change JC3.

This continues to be pursued in close collaboration with financial institutions and other domestic regulators. Enforcement Actions The Bank uses a range of tools to promote the stability and integrity of the financial system. Through our supervisory activities, we identify practices and conduct which can affect the safety of individual financial institutions and impair public confidence in the financial system. These range from minor to serious breaches of our rules and regulations.

Supervisory actions are generally preventive and corrective in nature. In , we took supervisory and enforcement actions. Examples of past actions include private reprimands, revocation of licence, monetary penalties and directions to implement remediation programmes to address gaps in risk management and controls within financial institutions. In addressing illegal financial activities during the year, we issued five cease and desist orders against illegal money services operators.

Additionally, we opened four investigation papers against operators of illegal money services business and financial schemes. The Bank also secured convictions against two illegal money services businesses. This allows consumers to check whether these entities are regulated by the Bank. Consumers are advised to refer to official sources of information, such as the Bank Negara Malaysia website whenever such claims are made.

These changes will be driven by technological advancements, demographic shifts, and climate change. In line with our mandate on financial stability, our regulatory and supervisory priorities will be anchored on five areas: i Continue to preserve a strong financial sector that effectively performs its intermediation function. This will enable the sector to provide countercyclical support throughout economic cycles and facilitate financial development as highlighted in the Financial Sector Blueprint to These five areas will help to foster the development of a sound, progressive and inclusive financial sector.

These will also help to enhance our capacity to deliver our financial stability mandate. Promoting a Progressive and Inclusive Financial System The Bank remains steadfast in promoting a progressive and inclusive financial system to meet the needs of Malaysians. Our commitment towards a progressive and inclusive financial system is embedded in the Central Bank of Malaysia Act In , we focused on enhancing access to financial products and services, especially for those affected by the prolonged pandemic.

We continued initiatives to accelerate digitalisation of financial services and deepen the domestic financial markets. Efforts were also placed to strengthen financial resilience among households, and micro and small and medium enterprises MSMEs. While we continue to advance the development of the financial sector, we prepared our strategies for the next five years.

The strategies are outlined in the Financial Sector Blueprint Blueprint. They aim to advance the financial sector to serve the economy effectively. Accelerating Digitalisation of Financial Services Digitalisation of financial services intensified in early and has continued to accelerate.

In , online banking transactions grew by Recognising the role of digital financial services in driving financial inclusion and efficiency, we actively pursued a range of policies to support innovation that can better serve Malaysians.

Since its launch in , the Fintech Regulatory Sandbox Sandbox continues to provide a safe and conducive environment for fintech solutions with genuine value proposition to experiment with innovative financial solutions and new business models. Temporary regulatory flexibilities are provided to enable this, commensurate with relevant safeguards to protect the public during the experimental phase.

In , the Sandbox received strong interest with 13 applications, nearly double from the previous year. Of these, the Bank approved four applications for further assessment for live testing. The rest of the applications were withdrawn by the participants upon consultation with the Bank.

These withdrawn applications either lack preparedness for live testing or did not warrant Sandbox testing given absence of regulatory impediments. Sustaining the trend recorded the previous year, interest in insurtech continues to grow. Nearly half of the Sandbox applications in were insurtechrelated solutions. Four insurtech companies are currently live testing their solutions in the Sandbox. These companies currently offer digital insurance, peer-to-peer takaful and aggregator services.

Four more companies have advanced to the preparation stage for subsequent live testing in This is an example of evidence-based policy formulation that facilitates innovation whilst managing the associated risks. Learning from this experience, the Bank will further enhance the Sandbox as indicated in the Blueprint.

This document outlines the proposed entry requirements for digital AnnuaL REPORT 29 Promoting a Progressive and Inclusive Financial System players , especially those with innovative solutions to address critical protection gaps, enhance consumer experience and elevate trust.

More specifically, the licensing of DITOs aims to increase the protection coverage of households and businesses, encourage healthy competition and drive efficiency gains Diagram 1. To this end, the Bank will take a balanced approach that encourages innovation, while promoting financial stability and protecting consumer interests.

Licensing of DITOs is aimed to take place in Diagram 1: Value Propositions for DITOs Inclusion Enhance financial resilience of consumers whose protection needs are currently not adequately served Competition Introduce more innovative solutions to cater to the diverse protection needs of consumers Efficiency Provide frictionless consumer experience with greater cost savings Source: Bank Negara Malaysia Discussion Paper on Licensing Framework for DITOs Following a 6-month application period which ended on 30 June , the Bank received a total of 29 applications for the digital bank license.

The assessment framework also placed emphasis on advancing financial inclusion through innovative solutions. The successful digital banks are expected to demonstrate the necessary capacity and resources to meet the prudential and technological requirements to operate sustainably as a digital bank. They are also expected to implement credible business strategies focused on promoting financial access and responsible usage of finance among the unserved and underserved segments.

In , we focused on governance, accessibility and liquidity. The MYOR encourages the usage of benchmark rates that are more robust1 and eases the transition towards transaction-based rates. Following a positive pilot programme, the Bank allowed non-resident banks to trade ringgitdenominated interest rate swap IRS without any underlying commitment with onshore banks or its Appointed Overseas Offices AOOs. This initiative is expected to deepen the IRS market as a liquid instrument while lowering hedging costs.

These measures aim to attract foreign direct investment while providing greater flexibility to export-oriented industries. They include removal of the export conversion rule, settlement of domestic trade in foreign currency, extension of the repatriation period for export proceeds, netting-off of export proceeds, and undertaking of commodity derivatives hedging with non-resident counterparties.

The policy document sets out principles to be observed by wholesale market participants to uphold the integrity and principles of fair market practices. This is essential to foster confidence and preserve financial stability. This is in contrast to IBORs e. Promoting a Progressive and Inclusive Financial System In , the Bank in collaboration with market participants through the Financial Markets Committee FMC remains committed to further enhance resilience of the domestic financial markets.

The areas of focus include the collateralised funding market and sustainable financing, among others. To this end, the Bank continues to welcome constructive feedback from stakeholders to progressively develop the Malaysian financial markets. Enhancing Access to Financial Products and Services Enhancing physical accessibility Malaysia has achieved a high level of financial inclusion compared to most regional peers.

Diagram 2: Accessibility and Account Ownership in Malaysia Physical financial access points offering basic financial services i. In , 21 million transactions valued at RM2. Agent banks are also key in promoting cashless transactions in remote areas. In , e-wallet transactions at agent banks rose by The Bank further enhanced access to financial services, particularly to help households and micro businesses cope with financial challenges during the pandemic.

To this end, the Bank reviewed the Agent Banking regulatory framework to enhance the role and effectiveness of agent banks. The revisions in the Exposure Draft on Agent Banking issued in July aim to increase accessibility and usage of financial products among the unserved and underserved segments. They also aim to facilitate the transition towards digitalisation. We expect to issue the policy document in In , more units will be deployed by participating financial institutions FIs.

Starting from , mobile banks will offer advisory services and digital onboarding support to catalyse digitalisation within rural communities. These ATMs can be used by customers of various banks and improve availability of cash access points in the country. Promoting inclusive financial product offerings Insurance and takaful protection can provide valuable support in times of need, especially for lowincome households or individuals with insufficient savings.

This initiative aims to encourage insurers and takaful operators ITOs to offer products that are suitable for the unserved and underserved segments. Such products should meet the principles of affordable, accessible, good value, easy to understand, and easy to buy and claim.

The PTPD provides further operational flexibilities aimed at encouraging access to, and the supply of, microinsurance and microtakaful products to meet the needs of these segments. This includes reviewing relevant requirements to expand the network of Perlindungan Tenang distribution partners. Flexibilities have also been provided to enable Perlindungan Tenang products to be combined with other financial products and value-added services such as telemedicine to increase take-up.

Since its launch in , Perlindungan Tenang has benefitted more than 2 million consumers. Around RM At end, 1. Recognising this, the Government extended the PTV programme for another year in and increased the voucher value to RM The PTV programme was also enhanced to enable the voucher to be redeemed for comprehensive motor insurance or takaful for a motorcycle with engine capacity of cc and below. The Government also extended the stamp duty exemption for Perlindungan Tenang products with premiums and contributions below RM increased from RM This is effective from 1 January until 31 December Ensuring continuous access to finance for businesses The Bank continued to facilitate the availability of, and access by businesses to financial support and assistance amid the pandemic.

This includes supporting funding and guarantee schemes for viable MSMEs, as well as education and capacity building initiatives implemented in collaboration with Government agencies and the financial sector Diagram 4. Correspondingly, a total of RM billion of SME financing was disbursed, exceeding the and pre-pandemic levels RM billion; average: RM billion.

Beyond financing from FIs, a wider range of funding instruments is key to support the growth of SMEs going forward Diagram 4. Amounting to RM The programme entails voucher allocation for eligible Bantuan Keluarga Malaysia recipients to purchase a new Perlindungan Tenang product or renew their existing Perlindungan Tenang protection plan.

As at end- , RM We continuously engaged with SMEs in key sectors to understand their challenges and ensure that changes made correspond to their needs. These facilities assist SMEs in strengthening their capital structure and to support green financing. During the year, the economy was also impacted by the floods. The DRF was again activated in December with an allocation of RM million, following the severe flooding across various states.

The allocation was later raised by RM million in January , bringing the total allocation to RM million. We also added other enhancements to the DRF implementation in Apart from SMEs, we worked with the financial industry to enhance access to financing for MidTier Companies MTCs , recognising their role in supporting a sustainable recovery.

In particular, we conducted studies and engagements with MTCs to better understand their financing challenges. In , they continued to increase their guarantee capacity to support SME financing. New schemes were introduced to cater for specific needs of businesses, such as relief for businesses affected by the pandemic and floods. SJPP and CGC have also continued to adopt a portfolio guarantee mechanism to improve the turnaround time for guarantee approvals.

SMEs that face repayment problems with multiple FIs continued to be assisted under the specialised and comprehensive debt rescheduling and restructuring assistance programme through the Small Debt Resolution Scheme SDRS. DFIs as a key enabler to enhance inclusivity and access to financing DFIs play an important role in supporting the development agenda of the nation. In , DFIs recorded a growth of 3. The higher approvals were driven by Government schemes and lending programmes by DFIs.

These initiatives extended financing to the underserved segments through more flexible product features. Some DFIs mobilised social finance to develop entrepreneurs through special programmes. This 10 36 Examples are moratorium for up to one year, lower instalment amounts, simpler requirements on documentations during the application process, affordable financing rates, and inclusion of informal segments as eligible borrowers. The CSP provides guidance to DFIs on the development and implementation of sound corporate strategies that are aligned with their developmental mandates and long-term viability.

Leveraging on the PMF, we continued efforts to enhance the transparency and accountability of DFIs in delivering their mandates. We also encouraged public disclosure of their performance. We continued to refine our supervisory approach for DFIs to better reflect their developmental efforts and achievements. We aim to ensure that the DFIs are prioritising national development sustainably without compromising their financial safety and soundness.

Of note, phase one of the planned merger of four DFIs11 was concluded successfully in November Looking ahead, there is prospect to further strengthen the performance and developmental impact of DFIs industry by continuing strategic consolidations of other key DFIs in order to harness more benefits from the economies of scale. These mergers also aim to achieve optimisation of public resources and better alignment towards national development priorities.

Promoting a Progressive and Inclusive Financial System Enhancing Financial Literacy of Malaysians Financial literacy plays a significant role in promoting a stable , progressive and inclusive financial system. The outreach via multiple digital platforms has widened FLM reach to many parts of Malaysia, including Sabah and Sarawak Diagram 8. These have resulted in short- and long-term impacts such as higher debt levels and reduced savings.

One of the key lessons that the pandemic has taught us is the importance of financial literacy. It has underlined the need to strengthen financial resilience to deal with unprecedented events. FEN continues to provide consumers with access to financial education solutions. Various financial education programmes were also organised for specific groups such as parents, students, youth, gig workers and MSMEs. During this challenging period, the Bank worked closely with Financial Education Network FEN members and partners to rapidly roll out digital content to help consumers make informed and better financial decisions Diagram 7.

The FEN Navigational website was launched in October as a one-stop financial education platform for all life stages. It contains more than financial literacy tools and resources by 24 members and partners Diagram It also incorporates a focus on research and measurement frameworks to sustain impactful financial education programmes Diagram It provides comprehensive advice to first-time home buyers to help them make prudent financial decisions. Besides providing advice on the financing application process, Rumahku teaches consumers on financial and non-financial aspects to consider when deciding to buy a house and getting home financing.

Through this, consumers learn about the risks and responsibilities of taking a home financing, and the options to reduce the cost of financing. Such options include paying off the financing more quickly through higher instalments. Diagram 12 illustrates how longer financing tenures lead to higher costs of financing.

As at 31 January , Rumahku has helped , individuals on their house financing matters. For more information on the Blueprint, please refer to the article below. The Bank is committed to elevate the financial wellbeing and resilience of households and businesses. We will continue to address the financial inclusion gaps, focusing on higher take-up rates alongside more responsible usage of financial products and services to enhance overall well-being.

Enhancing access to financial services for the underserved segments and ensuring that financing needs of businesses are met remain our key priorities. To diversify the range of funding instruments tailored to the broad spectrum of SMEs and MTCs, the Bank continuously collaborates with the Securities Commission Malaysia in advancing the development of alternative finance.

To further close these financing gaps, we will also focus on fostering market dynamism in the retail banking value chain — expanding choices for financial consumers and removing market frictions. Greater dynamism can be achieved through the operationalisation of the licensed digital banks and the implementation of the Open Data strategy. We will also strengthen financial protection for households and businesses by undertaking various reforms.

This is supported by key strategic thrusts to spearhead the desired outcomes and targets envisioned for the financial sector in Diagram To effectively navigate uncertain times in the path ahead, the sector must continue serving the Malaysian economy from a position of strength.

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